Index

This index is for Make it Happen: Effective Execution in Healthcare Leadership

A

Accountable care organizations (ACO), 16–17, 18, 112–113; scenario analysis of, 45, 47–49

Acute care episode (ACE) projects, 79–80, 82–101; bundled payment rate of, 49–50; change in control system of, 89, 91, 93; monitoring system of, 89, 91; organizational cultural analysis component of, 155–157; project crashing in, 89; project teams of, 85; risk management component of, 95, 96; scheduling of, 85–89

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 109

Archimedes model, 111

Association algorithms, 30, 31

Assumptions, underlying, 146–148, 155, 156–157, 178

Autonomy, of employees, 149

 

B

Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action (Kaplan and Norton), 54–55

Balanced scorecards, 19, 53-69, 121, 178. See also Initiative(s); Strategy maps: case examples of, 65–67; customer/patient perspective on, 56, 57–58, 69; elements of, 55–56; failure of, 64; financial perspective on, 55, 56, 57–58, 69; implementation of, 64–65; internal business process perspective on, 56, 57–58, 69; learning and growing perspective on, 56, 57–58, 69; linkage with budgets, 63; linkage with initiatives, 59; modifications of, 62; monitoring of, 63, 69; scorecard project reporting icon of, 126; use in organizational culture management, 155; use in strategic project identification, 73

Bandhold, Hans, 42

Bar charts, 26

Benchmarking, 31, 38; examples of, 32, 34–35; public reporting of, 32–33; quality measures for, 32–33; sources of, 31–32

Boolean logic, 121, 129

Boston Consulting Group Growth-Share matrix, 11

Brainerd, Mary, 153–154

Brainstorming, 94

Budgets: linkage with balanced scorecards, 63; as project component, 73

Bundled payment systems, 16–17, 18; scenario analysis of, 45, 49–50

Business intelligence, 4, 19–39; case studies of, 34–38

Business rules software, 23–24, 121–122, 123, 124

 

C

Capacity, for employee engagement, 149, 150

Categorical analysis, 24

Cause and effect, 115

Cause-and-effect statements, 59, 60, 62

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS): demonstration projects of, 18; hospital performance reports of, 33

Change. See also Clinical change; Clinical innovation: adaptive, implementation of, 161–163; embedding of, 109, 115–129; integrated systems response to, 174–175

Change control, in project management, 89, 91, 93

Change procedures, 73

Chaos, 174–175

Chartering process, for projects, 73, 74–75, 76–78, 79–80, 178

Checklists, 117–119, 129

Chief executive officers (CEOs), involvement in strategic planning, 10

Claims databases, 23

Classification, in data mining, 30, 31

Cleveland Clinic, 166

Clinical decision support systems, 122–124; case example of, 125–126, 127; fault-tolerant, 125–126, 127

Clinical guidelines, 123–124

Clinical innovation, 108–111, 114; case example of, 111–112; large-scale, 110, 114; Learning School model of, 12; organized, 109–110; process of, 55, 58

Clinical knowledge, implementation of, 108

Clinical trials, 111

Clinton Health Plan, 10

Cluster analysis, 30–31

Coaching, versus controlling, 165

Colleagues, leader’s interaction with, 164

Column charts, 26

Commonwealth Fund Commission, 1

Communication: during clinical change process, 110; face-to-face, 104, 125, 129

Communication plans, in project management, 73, 93

Communication skills, of leaders, 166

Compacts, 140, 141–143, 178

Compensation: compacts for, 140, 141–143; effective systems of, 138–139; pay-for-performance systems of, 178; professional services agreement (PSA) model of, 139–143; variable, 143

Competency, scenario analysis of, 44

Competitiveness, 138

Complementarity, 44, 137

Conflict, adaptive change-related, 162–163

Conflict management, team approach in, 164

Contemplative analysis, 24

Contracts, differentiated from compacts, 140

Control charts, 119, 120

Cooperation, versus initiative, 137

Cost reimbursement contracts, 96

Crossing the Quality Chasm (Institute of Medicine), 1

Cultural change, relationship to physician leadership, 165

Culture, organizational, 4–5, 145–158; artifact level of, 146, 147, 148, 155–156; case examples of, 153–157; definition of, 145–146; development of, 146; elements of, 145–146, 147; espoused beliefs and values level of, 146, 147, 155–156; iceberg metaphor of, 146, 147; implication for project management, 77; relationship to employee engagement, 149–157; shaping and embedding of, 148; underlying assumptions level of, 146–148, 155, 156–157, 178

Current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, 31–32

Customer perspective, on organizational performance, 55, 56, 57–58, 69

Customer satisfaction, agile project management approach to, 104

Customer structure, 134, 135, 136, 143

 

D

Daily huddle meetings, 113, 124, 129

Dashboards, 25, 26, 54, 119–121; graphical data displays of, 119, 120, 129; for organizational culture management, 155; for preventive services, 126, 128

Data access, 24–25

Data analysis, 23–24

Data collection: for balanced scorecards, 63; in strategic planning, 19–23

Data displays: of benchmark data, 34, 119, 120, 121; graphical, 25–29, 119, 120, 129

Data marts, 22, 23

Data mining, 20, 23, 29–31; association in, 30–31; case examples of, 35–37; classification in, 30–31; cluster analysis in, 30–31; definition of, 29; text mining, 31, 35–36; Web mining, 31

Data warehousing, 20, 21–23, 177; case examples of, 34, 35, 37; comparison with transactional data systems, 24; data access in, 24–25; erroneous data entry in, 23; extract, transform, and load (ETL) component of, 22, 23, 34, 37, 38; in integrated healthcare systems, 173; of metadata, 23

Dean Health System, benchmarking use by, 34–35

Denver International Airport, 72

Design, organizational. See Structure, organizational

Design School model, of strategic planning, 10, 13, 18, 50, 56, 177

Detailed task scheduling, 108

Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), 49–50

DMAIC framework, 105–106, 108, 109, 114

Doughnut charts, 27, 28

Drill-down reporting, 24, 25, 35, 119

Drug prescriptions, 35

E

Eddy, David, 111

Effectiveness, scenario analysis of, 44

Electronic health records (EHRs): data warehousing of, 20, 21–23; definition of, 39; HIMSS Analytics EMR Adoption Model of, 20; implementation of, 20; use in clinical research, 111

Electronic health records (EHRs) systems: clinical support function of, 122–124; text storage function of, 36

Electronic medical records (EMRs), definition of, 39

Emergent strategy formulation, 10

Emotional intelligence, 166

Empowerment, 165

Engagement, of employees: factors affecting, 4–5, 149; “line of sight” approach to, 152–153; relationship to organizational culture, 149–157; strategies for improvement of, 151–153; surveys of, 149–151, 154–155, 158, 178

Environmental assessment, 13, 14, 33

Episode of treatment groups (ETGs), 23, 37, 38

Equity, internal and external, 138

Errors, in data entry, 23

Execution, in healthcare: barriers to, 1; integrated system for, 2, 5, 173–179; need for, 1–6

Exegesis, 39

Exegetical analysis, 24, 25

External assessment, in strategic plan development, 19–21

Extract, transform, and load (ETL) component, of data warehousing, 22, 23, 34, 37, 38

F

Feasibility analysis, of project charters, 77–78

Feedback, 115–116, 117; balancing, 116, 117, 119, 124, 129; reinforcing, 116, 117

Filtering rules, 121–122

Financial perspective, on organizational performance, 55, 56, 57–58, 69

Financial reports, as primary management tool, 53–54

Financing, of healthcare, 2, 3

Fishbone diagrams, 117

Fixed-price contracts, 96

Flowcharts, 117, 118

Force field analysis, 94

Foresight, of leaders, 165

Formulaic analysis, 24

Freedom, role in employee engagement, 149, 150

Fuel gauge indicators, of performance, 26

Functional organization structure, 133–134, 135, 143

Futurescan, 42

G

General systems theory, 115–116, 129

Globalization, 42

Goals: of high-performance healthcare systems, 1; “line of sight” approach to, 152–153; “stretch,” 65

Graphical data displays, 25–29, 119, 120, 129

Great Society, 2, 9

Greenleaf, Robert, 163–164

Griffith, John, 175–176

Growth-share matrix, 11, 12

H

Harrah’s Casino, 21

Harvard University, 160

Health Administration Press, 42

Healthcare: access to, 1; changing emphasis in, 2, 3

Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information set (HEDIS) measures, 111

Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS), electronic medical record implementation model of, 20

Healthcare Operations Management (McLaughlin and Hays), 29, 55, 58, 80–81, 94, 95, 104

Healthcare policy, 1

Healthcare Strategic Planning (Zuckerman), 13

Healthcare systems, high-performance, 1–2, 5

HealthPartners, 13, 15; business intelligence system of, 34; Care, Innovation, and Measurement department of, 111–112; organizational culture change strategy of, 153–154

Heifetz, Ron, 160, 161–163

HIMSS Analytics EMR Adoption Model, 20

Histograms, 117

“Holding environment,” for conflict management, 162–163

Hospital performance metrics, 32

Huddles, 113, 124, 129

I

“If-then” statements, 59, 60, 62

Implementation planning, 13, 14

Incremental strategy formulation, 10

Information systems, 19; of project management offices, 100

Information technology (IT), vendor contracts for, 77

Information technology (IT) departments, 121

Initiative(s): versus cooperation, 137; development of, 59; failure of, 64; implementation of, 62; linkage of, 62–63; measures for, 59, 60; for organizational synergy, 62; prioritization of, 65; strategy maps of, 60–62; targets of, 63, 65, 69

Innovation. See Clinical innovation

Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), 154; “Hospital to Home strategy of, 18; improvement map of, 110, 114; leadership model of, 166–167; “100,000 Lives” campaign of, 110; project improvement model of, 106–107, 108, 109

Institute of Medicine (IOM), Crossing the Quality Chasm, 1

Integrated system, for execution in healthcare: action plan for, 176–178; demand for, 2; implementation of, 173–179; leader of, 178; Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria for, 175–176, 177, 178, 179

Integrative roles, 136

Internal business process perspective, on organizational performance, 56, 57–58, 69

Internal performance analysis, 38; data access in, 24–25; data analysis in, 23–24; data collection for, 19–23; data displays in, 25–29; of data sources, 19–21

J

Johns Hopkins Hospital, 118

Joint Commission, 33

K

Kaizen events, 106

Kaplan, Robert, 54–55, 64

Knowledge transfer, among colleagues, 125

L

Lagging indicators. See Outcome indicators

Leaders, role in organizational culture, 148, 157

Leadership, 159–170; adaptive, 5, 160–163, 167–169, 178; danger of, 160–161; “great man” theory of, 160; Institute for Healthcare Improvement model of, 166–167; of integrated healthcare systems, 178; as performance criterion, 175, 176, 177; physician, 165–166; power-based, 164; relationship to organizational culture, 153; servant, 163–165, 169–170, 178; team approach in, 164

Leadership skills, training in, 165–166

Leading indicators. See Performance drivers

Lean process improvement approach, 58, 104

Lean Six Sigma process improvement approach, 104–106, 137; DMAIC framework of, 104–106, 108, 109, 114

Leapfrog group, 33

Learning perspective, on organizational performance, 56, 57–58, 69

Learning School model, of strategic planning, 11–12, 15, 16, 50, 56, 175, 177

Lindgren, Mats, 42

Line charts, 26

Linsky, Marty, 160

Listening skills, of leaders, 161–162, 164

M

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria, 31, 175–176, 177, 178, 179

Managed care, effect on healthcare strategic planning, 10

Management tools, failure of, 53–54

Market basket analysis, 30, 31

Market share, 11, 12

Marshfield Clinic, data warehousing use by, 35, 36

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 145

Matrix structures, 136

Mayo Clinic, data mining use at, 35–37

McKinsey & Company, 165

Medicaid, 2

Medical Group Management Association, 31

Medical homes, 16–17, 18, 169–170; dashboards of, 126, 128; employee engagement survey of, 157–158; scenario analysis of, 45–47; strategy maps of, 67–68

Medical practice financial metrics, 32

Medicare, 1, 2, 9; Acute Care Episode (ACE) project of, 49–50, 79–80, 82–101

Meetings: daily huddle, 113, 124, 129; of project teams, 99–100

Metadata, warehousing of, 23

Microsoft Project, 71, 80–81, 80–81 83, 83, 86, 91

Mind mapping, 94

Monitoring systems, real-time, 21

Motivation, 149, 150; as basis for performance analysis, 55, 56; for clinical change, 110; effect of organizational structure on, 137–138

N

National Alliance for Health Information Technology, 39

National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), 33

National Quality Forum, 33, 110, 114

Networks, 135

Norton, David, 54–55, 64

O

Objectives, initiatives for achievement of, 59–63

On Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) software, 24–25; graphical data display component of, 25–29; predictive analysis component of, 29

Operating procedures, 116–117, 129

Operational reports, as primary management tool, 53–54

Operational reviews, 64

Operational systems, comparison with data warehousing, 24

Organizational direction, 13, 14

Outcome indicators, 59, 60, 64

P

Pareto charts, 117, 121–122, 124

Patient management, clinical decision support system for, 125–126, 127

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 1, 16

Pay-for-performance systems, 178

Payment reform, 43–44

Performance: as basis for compensation system, 138–139; Malcolm Baldrige award for, 31, 175–176, 177, 178, 179

Performance data, transparency of, 124–125, 129

Performance drivers, 59, 60, 64

Performance measures: customer-related, 55, 56, 68, 69; financial, 55, 56, 68, 69; learning and growth-related, 55, 56; motivation-related, 55, 56

Performance reporting, 20, 23–25, 30

Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI), 33

Physicians, as leaders, 165–166

Pie charts, 27

Planning School model, of strategic planning, 10–11, 13, 18, 50, 177

Political skills, of leaders, 162

Portfolio strategies, 11, 12

Positioning School model, of strategic planning, 11, 12, 18, 177

Post-service systems, 58

Poudre Valley Health System, 31

Practice operations metrics, 32

Predictive analysis, 29

Preventive services, dashboards of, 126, 128

Problem-solving skills, 166

Process improvement, tools for, 58

Process management, 175, 176, 177

Process maps, 117, 118

Process simulation, 58

Procurement process, 95–97

Product structure, 134, 135, 143

Professional services agreement (PSA) model, of compensation, 139–143; case example of, 140, 142–143

Project, definition of, 72–73

Project management, 71–101; agile, 103–104, 105, 109, 112–113; change control system in, 89, 91, 93; chartering process in, 73–74, 75, 76–78, 79–80, 178; communication plan component of, 93; comparison of systems of, 107–108, 109; critical path determination in, 89, 90; Gantt chart use in, 86, 88, 89; “gold plating” in, 81; historical background of, 72; indications for, 72–73; Institute for Healthcare Improvement model of, 106–107, 108, 109, 114, 126; “milestones” in, 82; monitoring system in, 89, 91; network diagram use in, 86, 87; poorly managed, 72; procurement component of, 95–97; project closure in, 97–98; project crashing in, 89; Project Management Institute approach to, 103, 108, 112–113; project prioritization in, 73–74, 75; project scope of, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 80–81; project selection in, 73–74; quality management component of, 95; risk management component of, 94–95; scheduling of tasks in, 85–89; Six Sigma DMAIC model of, 104–106, 108, 109, 114; slack determination in, 87, 89, 90; software for, 71, 80–81, 83, 86, 91; tools for, 78–81; variations on, 103–114; work breakdown component of, 71, 73, 82–84, 85–89, 94, 95

Project Management Body of Knowledge, 72

Project Management Institute, 4, 72, 103

Project management office, 100–101, 178

Project management professionals (PMPs), 72, 178, 179

Project managers, 75–76, 98

Project plans, 73, 74

Project teams, 77, 109; meetings of, 99–100; performance of, 100; structure of, 98

Pronovost, Peter, 118–119

Pyramid structure, of organizations, 136

Q

Quality, in healthcare: definition of, 95; Malcolm Baldrige award for, 31, 175–176, 177, 178, 179; public reporting of, 43–44

Quality control, as project component, 73, 74

Quality management, 95

R

Radar charts, 27–28

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 111

Rapid process improvement workshops (RPIWs), 106

RASIC chart, 85, 86, 91

Referrals, 139

Relative value units (RVUs), 139

Request for information (RFI), 97

Request for proposal (RFP), 97

Rewards-based compensation, 138

Risk, definition of, 94

Risk management, 73, 74, 94–95

Risk mitigation, 95, 96

Risk registers, 95

Root cause analysis, 94

Run charts, 117

S

Safety, as healthcare system goal, 1, 2

St. Mary’s Hospital/Duluth Clinic (SMDC): employee engagement survey of, 154–155; scorecard project reporting icon use at, 126; strategy maps and balanced scorecards of, 65–67

SAS, 121–122

SAS Text Miner, 35–36

Scatter charts/plots, 27, 35, 36, 117

Scenario analysis, 4, 12, 41–50, 165, 175, 177; case example of, 45–50; goals of, 42; trend tracking feature of, 42–43

Scenario cross, 43, 44, 48, 49

Schein, Edgar, 145–146

“Scope creep,” 75

Scope statements, of projects, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 80–81

Scorecards. See also Balanced scorecards: definition of, 120

Self-awareness, in leaders, 164

Self-reflection, by leaders, 162

“Silos,” 135–136, 143

Six Sigma process improvement approach, 58, 104, 117, 137

Slack, 87, 89, 90

Society for Healthcare Strategy and Market Development, 42

Sparklines, 28–29

Stakeholders, in projects, 76–77, 94

Standard operating procedures (SOPs), 116–117, 129

Statement of work (SOW), 96–97

Statistical process control (SPC), 119

Stoller, James, 166

Strategic alignment, 149, 150

Strategic planning, 4, 9–18; case studies of, 13, 15–17; Design School model of, 10, 13, 18, 50, 56, 177; external assessment in, 19; historical background to, 9–10; internal assessment in, 19–21; Internet resources for, 18; Learning School model of, 11–12, 15, 16, 50, 56; models of, 10–13; need for, 10; as performance criterion, 175, 176, 177; Planning School model of, 10–11, 13, 18, 50, 177; Positioning School model of, 11, 12, 18, 177; as primary management tools, 53–54; process of, 14; as project management resource, 94; scenario planning and, 41–50; SWOT analysis component of, 94

Strategies: execution of, 173–175; for integrated systems implementation, 177

Strategy development, 56–57

Strategy-Focused Organization (Kaplan and Norton), 54–55

Strategy formulation, 13, 14

Strategy maps, 55, 56–57, 60–63, 178; case examples of, 65–67; linked initiatives of, 62–63; review of, 64

Strategy reviews, 64, 178

Strategy testing/adaptation, 64

Structure, organizational, 133–138; hierarchical, 136; of integrated healthcare systems, 178; of large organizations, 136–138; noncomplexity and nonconcavity of, 137; star model of, 133–134

Surface charts, 28

Surveys, of employee engagement, 149–151, 154–155, 158, 178

SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis, 10, 16, 18, 94

Synergy, organizational, 62

Systems theory, 173, 174

T

Team approach, 136; in conflict management, 164; in leadership, 164; project teams, 77, 98, 99–100, 109

Technical skills, of physician leaders, 166

Testing, centralized versus point-of-service, 137

Text mining, 31, 35–36

Theater, as organizational culture change strategy, 153–154

Training, in leadership skills, 165–166

Transparency, of data, 124–125, 129

Trends, tracking of, 42–43

Tufte, Edward, 28

Twin Cities Orthopedics, 15

U

Uncertainty, of trends, 43–44

Unexpected events, response to, 174–175

United States Department of Commerce, 175–176, 177

United States Department of Defense, 72

United States Preventive Services Task Force, 110, 114

University of Michigan, 175

University of St. Thomas, Physician Leadership College, 5, 159

V

Vanderbilt Medical Center, clinical decision support system of, 125–126, 127

Vendors: contracts with, 96–98; of employee engagement surveys, 149–150; procurement of, 95–96, 97

Vincent Valley Healthcare, 5, 15–17; accountable care organization (ACO) project of, 112–113, 167–169; data warehousing use by, 37; medical home project of, 45–47, 126, 128, 157, 169–170; Medicare acute care episode (ACE) project of, 82–101, 155–157; preventive services dashboard of, 126, 128; professional services agreement of, 140, 142–143; project management office of, 101, 113; project management process of, 71–101; scenario analysis use at, 45–50; strategy maps of, 67–68

W

Washington, George, 164

Web mining, 31

Work, technical versus adaptive, 160

Workforce, engaged, 149; surveys of, 149–151

This index is for Make it Happen: Effective Execution in Healthcare Leadership

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